Anthroposophic medicine and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health problem - Studies show the significant potential from anthroposophic and other integrative medicine approaches to safely reduce antimicrobial use. Find  IVAAs statement  here.

Have as well a look at the presentation prepared for the CAM Interest Group, European Parliament, Bruxelles 1April 2014 

In November 2015, on occasion of the "Antibiotics Awareness Day", the IVAA together with EUROCAM published the position paper

 The role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in reducing the problem of antimicrobial resistance

Therapists in Anthroposophic Medicine

Anthroposophic therapists (July 2012)


Anthroposophic therapies such as eurythmy therapy (a special movement therapy), artistic therapy (painting, modelling, singing, music), therapeutic speech, anthroposophic physiotherapy and rhythmical massage, and anthroposophic nursing etc. are an essential part of anthroposophic medicine. They can be defined as “classical” anthroposophic therapies as they were initiated together with anthroposophic medicine in the 1920ies. Every therapist is well trained according to curricula specific to the respective therapy. A special feature of anthroposophic medicine is that these therapists provide their skills/services in accordance with a medical prescription from a doctor, as part of the integrated anthroposophic approach to medicine. As anthroposophic medicine developed over the years further therapeutic approaches were inspired by anthroposophy, including anthroposophic psychotherapy, biographic counseling and other. As example of those “newer” developments anthroposophic psychotherapy was also addressed in the current survey. Altogether, in 2012 more than 7000 anthroposophic therapists practice in 25 EU member states, Norway and Switzerland.


Outside Europe 700 therapists offer anthroposophic therapies.

Eurythmy Therapy


Eurythmy therapy is provided by almost 1200 fully trained eurythmy therapist in 19 EU member states (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom) and in Norway and Switzerland. Full training is available in Germany, Sweden, UK and in Switzerland with the possibility of a BA-degree at the University of Alfter in Germany. Professional bodies exist in Austria, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Sweden, UK and in Switzerland. Further information is available on


Eurtyhmy therapy is available in 17 countries outside Europe (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Georgia, Iceland, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Russia, The Philippines, South Korea, South Africa, and in the USA). However, in many countries with few anthroposophic physicians in these only every second fully trained eurythmy therapist (in average 54%) is working in the field of medicine in cooperation with a doctor. Many eurythmy therapist provide so called “ hygienic eurythmy in schools, kindergardens or institutes for people with learning difficulties or work in complete other professions. 
Full training curricula are provided in Argentina, Brazil and in the USA, a master degree can be achieved in Australia. Professiona bodies are established in Australia, Brazil, Israel, New Zealand and in the USA.

Anthroposophic Artistic Therapies


Anthroposophic artistic therapies are practiced by 1285 therapists who are fully trained in one of the anthroposophic artistic therapies painting, modelling, singing, music, therapeutic speech in 19 EU member states including Malta!, and in Norway and Switzerland. In addition an estimate of about 200 fully trained anthroposophic artistic therapists are not registered with professional bodies otherwise registered (in countries without professional bodies).This group works partly in conventional medical institutes. Full curriculum training is provided in 11 EU member states and professional bodies exist in 9 EU member states. In Holland and Germany MA-degrees are possible. 


Anthroposophic artistic therapie is well established in 9 coutries outside Europe (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Georgia, Israel, New Zealand, The Philippines and the USA). In addition art therapist work in Canada, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan and the Ukraine. Full training curricula are regularly performed in Argentina, Brazil, Israel and New Zealand. Professional bodies have been established in Brazil The Philippines and in the USA. The largest member associations work in Brazil and the USA with 33 and 32 members, respectively. A master degree is available in Brazil, The Philippines and in the USA.

Anthroposophic Nursing


Anthroposophic nurses practice in 15 EU member states, Norway and Switzerland. Full curriculum training is provided in Austria, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden, the UK and in Switzerland. Professional bodies exist in Austria, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden and in the UK. 

The numerous distribution of the almost 3800 anthroposophic nurses across Europe shows a pattern of relatively high numbers 4 EU member states, Germany (n=2400), Switzerland (n=570), Sweden (n=396), and Holland (n=300) and a quite continuous distribution of low numbers in the remaining 11 EU member states. This is due to the fact that the main working areas of anthroposophic nurses are the hospitals; therefore the high numbers represent the countries with well established anthroposophic hospitals. However, anthroposophic nurses work also in institutes of conventional health care, outpatient’s centres and homes for the elderly. 


Anthroposophic nurses work in 7 countries outside Europe (Australia, Brazil, Georgia, Israel, The Philippines, New Zealand and in the USA). A professional body exists so far only in New Zealand. This country has with 60 nurses also one of the biggest member association outside Europe. A similar association is established in Georgia (60 members). Full training curricula are provided in Georgia, New Zealand and in the USA.

Anthroposophic Physiotherapy and Rhythmical Massage


Anthroposophic Physiotherapy and Rythymical Massage is provided in 20 EU member states, Norway and Switzerland by more than 600 fully trained therapists. Full curriculum training is provided in Austria, Germany, Italy, Holland and Switzerland. Professional bodies exist in Germany, Italy, Holland, Spain, the UK and in Switzerland. In Austria and Holland it is possible to acquire a Masters degree. The highest numbers of anthroposophic physiotherapist are found in the countries where AM started, but there is a continous distribution across almost all EU member states even in countries without anthroposophic doctors like Greece.


Anthroposophic physiotherapy and rhythmical massage is provided in 10 countries outside Europe (Argentina, Australia,Brazil, Chile, Georgia, Israel, New Zealand, Peru, The Philippines and in the USA). The only professional body exists in Brazil. Full training curricula are provided in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and the USA. The biggest associations are in Brazil (54 members) and in the USA (43 members).

Anthroposophic Psychotherapy


In addition to the “classical” anthroposophic therapies some medical disciplines like psychotherapy have enlarged their professional scope with the knowledge out of anthroposophy and developed “Anthroposophic Psychotherapy”. In 2011 a total of almost 400 anthroposophic psychotherapists are working in 19 EU member states and in Norway and Switzerland. Full training in anthroposophic psychotherapy is available in 9 EU member states (Germany, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom) and Switzerland. A master of bachelor degree in anthroposophic phychotherapy is available in Germany, Holland, Italy and the UK. In these countries are also professional bodies established.


Anthroposophic psychotherapy outside Europe shows an obvious focus in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) and Israel. In these four countries full training curricula are provided. Professional bodies exist in Argentina and Brazil. The biggest associations are in Brazil (51 members) and Argentina (30 Members)

Anthroposophic “Heilpraktiker”

A relative new development of the last 20 years in particular in Germany is the profession of Anthroposophic Heilpraktiker. This is still a very small group of Heilpraktiker (as defined by the German Heilpraktiker-Gesetz) who provide Heilkunde (as defined by the German Heilpraktiker Gesetz) out the view of anthroposophy. The so far only professional body exists in Germany (AGAHP=Arbeitsgemeinschaft anthroposophischer Heilpraktiker) with 74 members who fulfill the strict criteria for a membership. Outside Germany a working group exists in Switzerland and single individuals in Italy, Holland and Demark collaborate with AGAHP. However it should be noticed that in Germany about 10.000 non anthroposophic Heilpraktiker prescribe anthroposophic medicinal products (AMP) and some of them also anthroposophic therapies.

Last update 3.7.2016 © IVAA 2016


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